Famous Jewelers

CARTIER - The Jeweller of Kings - Part One

The magnificent firm of Cartier has been at the forefront of some of the most important jewelry design trends of the 20th century. Cartier has shown an enduring influence in design and craftsmanship and has become one of the most widely recognized symbols of luxury and elegance, ranging from the opulence of La Belle Epoque, the geometry and exoticism of the Art Deco movement to the development of the classic wristwatch and ornate clocks.

Brands, Clothing, Creative, Fashion, Full Bloom, Illustration, Inspiration, Luxury
Louis Francois Cartier- founded the company in Paris, France in 1847 

*Early Years*

"The House of Cartier" was founded in Paris. by a young Louis-Francois Cartier in 1847, the time period between the Abdication of King Louis Philippe and the establishment of the Second Empire. Like many small business's during this time, Cartier experienced difficult financial problems, by working through them, gradually Cartier's business started to thrive.

1856 Study of Princess Mathilde, Napoleon II's cousin for "Bapteme du Prince imperial" by Thomas Couture (Chateau Compiegne, Compiegne).

With a tremendous amount of hard work and a growing reputation, in 1856 Cartier had secured the patronage of the Princess Mathilde, second cousin of Napoleon II, and shortly thereafter, the Empress Eugenie as well. With his improved presence and financial rewards, Cartier moved his young firm to a larger more desirable site on the Boulevard Des Italiens 1859. 

A young Cartier commissioned beautiful works from established jewelry houses, such as this Rene Lalique Enamel and Horn Hair Comb (1860-1945)

During the early years, Cartier along with many other Parisian Jewelers, were retailers rather than designers or manufactures of jewelry, commissioning works from the various workshops and well established firms in the vicinity of Paris, such as Fossin, Delamarre and Lalique. This allowed Cartier to stock a wide assortment of luxury goods including Porcelain, Silverware, Bronze Busts and medallions as well as jewelry and watches. 

 Diamond, Enamel and Natural Pearl brooch. Signed "Cartier Paris" - Circa 1890's!

Cartier's jewelry pieces became notable for the fineness of their execution rather than for any originally in design. While Cartier would soon establish design and manufacturing workshops of their own, they would continue to rely on specialty workshops for creating certain pieces.

Rue de la Paix Paris circa 1900

*Rue de la Paix*
In 1899, Cartier moved again, to their present location. The Rue de la Paix, which is considered the "Epicenter of the French Luxury Trade" This famed street was home to famous jewelry firms such as Mellerio,Verver and Aucoc, also the great fashion houses, most particularly the distinguished firm of Worth. The House of Worth and Cartier were instrumental in ensuring that the Rue de la Paix became the preeminent shopping address in the world.

Belle Epoque brooch with magnificent Colombian emeralds—Cartier

*Belle Epoque*
Cartier's move to the Rue de la Paix coincided with a period of extraordinary economic growth in France and the world. Cartier's business was growing and expanding and was shifting their emphasis from retail to design and manufacturing. Cartier excelled and made their mark in pioneering the use of Platinum, creating beautiful and unique items, including the delicate and graceful style Garland that became so popular and came to be associated with the Belle Epoque. Technical advances in the manufacturing process of Platinum enabled beautiful designs of great intricacy, strength and flexibility such as found in the unique Resille designs of Cartier.
Cartier joaillerie collier lavallière (1905), rubies, 2 diamonds poires 4 carats, diamonds

The beautiful Garland style, came about from inspirations of the sumptuous setting and pomp of Louis XIV's Court of Versailles and incorporated Bows, Wreaths, Vases and Garland motifs.
The Grand Duchess Vladimir tiara, now part of the Cambridge/Delhi Emerald Parure owned by Queen Elizabeth II. Originally, this was made by Cartier for Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna the elder, with pearl drops dangling from the circles. Later on, Queen Mary, who had bought the tiara in the 1930's, had emeralds that had belonged to her mother adapted as well, with them being interchangeable with the pearls. It is one of the favourite jewels of Queen Elizabeth II.

Cartier used many Eighteenth century pattern books as inspiration for his designs and encouraged his designers to keep note of the interesting and ornate architectural details that were to be found throughout the buildings of Paris. Cartier and his firm excelled in adorning both Royalty and the very well off with beautiful and unique Stomachers, Epaulettes, Corsage Ornaments, Dog Collars, Lavalieres and Tiaras. 

CARTIER - The Jeweller of Kings - Part Two

The beginning of the Twentieth century was a magnificent time for Cartier and his firm.

*London, New York & St. Petersburg*

Designed as two-color sapphire flowers to the circular-cut diamond openwork leaves, circa 1955, 4.5 cm. high Signed Cartier London

Cartier and his firm started the Twentieth century off opening new branches in London and New York where their wealthiest and most dedicated clientele resided. This was also a time of many important Commissions and Warrants. In 1902 the Coronation of Edward VII, brought forward a large number of Commissions from England's leading families. It is known from past records that Cartier and his firm produced twenty-seven Tiaras alone for the Coronation and this event was instrumental in convincing the firm to open a permanent residence in London.
The London branch thrived under the supervision of Alfred's youngest son, Jacques Cartier, establishing London based design and manufacturing workshops by 1904. Cartier also received the first of fifteen Royal Warrants, being appointed Official Purveyor of  the Court of King Edward VII.

Alfred Cartier and his three sons, Louis, Pierre and Jacques in 1922.

By 1906 Alfred had largely retired and Louis and his brother Pierre operated the Cartier business jointly. One of their first major decisions was to establish a New York presence and workshop in 1909 under the supervision of Pierre. Opening a Cartier store in New York was an obvious choice for Louis and Pierre, as many of America's wealthiest families had been traveling to Paris for some time to purchase jewels from Cartier.

Cartier's beautiful Beaux-Arts Mansion location at Christmas time..653 Fifth Avenue, New York

The famous story of Pierre's purchase of their present location in New York is well known. The building a beautiful and elegant Beaux-Art Mansion on 653 Fifth Avenue, which was owned by Industrialist Morton F. Plant, in 1917. The building changed hands for $1.00 and a double strand of Natural Pearls, admired by Plant's wife and valued at One Million dollars, the asking price for the mansion. An ironic twist to the story is that even though the Fifth Avenue location remains priceless to the firm, when the Pearls came up for auction in 1957, they fetched a mere $170,000.

A great example of the Egyptian style in Art Deco! This brooch made in the c.mid 1920's by Cartier, New York, epitomises the purest Art Deco style. This brooch is made in platinum and set with cabochon sapphires, emeralds and a central ruby.

Rare Cartier Yellow Gold, Diamond, Emerald, Sapphire, Ruby Watch 
Cartier St. Petersburg 

In 1908, Louis Cartier temporarily established a branch of the firm in St Petersburg. Louis's main focus was an attempt to capture the Russian market by introducing the latest in Paris jewelry fashions and by directly taking on the famed firm of Faberge. Cartier made significant inroads into the Russian market, until the Bolshevik Revolution necessitated the closing of the firm in St. Petersburg. Cartier created two of his famous Ornamental Eggs, one a gift from the City of Paris to the Tsar Nicholas, securing the patronage of the Grand Dutchess Vladimer and they also created an unusual Rock Crystal and Diamond Wedding Tiara for the wealthy Princess Irina Youssoupoff.

The extensive traveling that the brothers undertook furthered their International renown and enriched their design aesthetic, it also brought inspiration to their jewelry designs, helping to establish the firm as one of the foremost exponents of Art Deco design.

*Art Deco Period* 

In 1910, inspiration was to be found everywhere. Exotic Countries, the aesthetic impact of Sergie Diaghliev's Ballets Russes, beautiful works of Cubist painters such as Picasso and Braque and the bold colors and techniques of artists such as VanGogh, Paul Gauguin and Cezanne.

Tamara Karsavina and Mikhail Fokine in The Firebird. Ballets Russes de Serge de Diaghilev, 1910. St. Petersburg
Pablo Picasso: "Portrait of Ambroise Vollard", 1910. Style: Analytical Cubism. Technique: Oil on canvas

The Art Deco period was to become a turning point in the design history and influence for Cartier and their firm. Cartier's Art Deco pieces were created using vivid colors such as Coral, Jade and Lapis, along with contrasting opaque and translucent materials such as Onyx and Diamonds. These unusual combinations created bold and surprising color combinations.

Art Deco Platinum, Carved Sapphire and Diamond Jabot, Cartier. Circa 1925. Doyle New York.
Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes

While this unique style was being produced well before the outbreak of WWI. The movement was not formally recognized until the 1925 Exposition Internationationale Des Arts Decoratifs Et Industriels Modernes from which the term Art Deco came from. Cartier's Wonderful display at this exhibition was notable not only for its beautiful and unique jewelry, but also for the fact that they were the only jewelers of approximately 400, to exhibit with the fashion houses in the Pavillion De L' Elegance rather than with the jewelers in the Grand Palais, this choice further underscored Louis' firm belief in the unity of Decorative Arts.

*Egyptian and Tutti Frutti*

Egyptian-Revival Jeweled Fan Brooch, Cartier, London, 1923 - Sotheby's

The influence of Ancient Egypt had been a factor in the world of Art and Design since the eighteenth century. Cartier's beautiful early Egyptian inspired jewels used unique Scarab motifs, Lotus Blooms and other recognizable symbols wrought in Lapis, Turquoise and Garnet, highlighted with Pearls and Diamonds.
The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 furthered the interest in the Egyptian style, as did the Franco-Egyptian Exhibition at the Louvre in 1911. Pieces in the early 1900's included stylized motifs worked in Platinum with Diamonds, Onyx and unique designs of Calibre-Cut Emeralds, Rubies and Sapphires.

Following the exciting discovery of Tutankhamen's Tomb by Howard Carter in 1922, the interest in the Egyptian style greatly intensified. Cartier's Egyptian style pieces were very imaginative and included Ancient Egyptian Faience Beads and Fragments.

Cartier Indian Inspired Carved Emerald, Onyx and Diamond Bangle, Circa 1925.

Another of Cartier's styles which he incorporated Ancient components into was Indian style jewelry that used rare, carved Mughal stones, which included beautiful Emeralds. Cartier set most of his jewelry in contemporary mountings. 
These beautiful stones were Colombian Emeralds that had been imported to India since the seventeenth century and the carvings were based on the Islamic Flower Cult of the Moghul Emperiors. 

The Mountbatten Bandeau by Cartier, 1928. Rubies, sapphires, emeralds, diamonds and platinum. "Tutti Frutti".
Cartier also imported a large amount of carved Ruby, Emerald and Sapphire Leaves from India that they used in their unique "Tutti Frutti" style of jewelry. The Tutti Frutti style of jewelry has retained its popularity and is still highly sought after today. Tutti Frutti style jewelry originated in 1923. A beautiful Art Deco Tutti Frutti Bracelet created by Cartier was auctioned in June 2011 by Christies for a record setting price of $1,887,232.00.


CARTIER - The Jeweller of Kings - Part Three

Cartier made a practice of never noting any of their designers individually. The firms policy was to promote the Cartier name singularly, but one man should be mentioned. The history of the firm would not be complete without acknowledging the influence and brilliance of their Chief Designer Charles Jacqueau.
Charles Jacqueau joined the firm as a young artist in 1909, his interests and inspirations were eclectic and original and he is credited with creating some of the most innovative and artful pieces of the teens and twenties.

Coral and Emerald Dragon-Head Bracelet, Cartier, Paris, 1928 Designed by Charles Jacqueau, enamelled gold, carved coral heads set with sapphire horns and diamond eyes and teeth, holding two melon-cut emerald beads of 48.43 carats with onyx tips Art Deco
The Yusupov Rock Crystal Tiara. Made of carved rock crystal with platinum and diamonds, the largest central diamond a perfect 3.66 carat round diamond, this was designed by Charles Jacqueau for Cartier and made in 1911 by Cartier’s Paris workshop. Prince Felix Yusupov (1887-1967) had an eye for, and a love for, jewelry, and he bought this Cartier tiara as a gift for his bride.

Charles Jacqueau was a seasoned traveler and found inspirations during his many trips to Italy, Russia, Spain and Morocco. Some inspirations also came from places closer to home, such as the varied exhibits at the Louvre and the colors and movement of the Ballets Russes. While many of the Cartier design archives are unsigned and difficult to attribute, a number of Jacqueau's designs have survived, descended from his personal collection.
Cartier Vanity case, 1925 ~ Gold, platinum, red and black enamel, sapphires, emeralds, diamonds, mother-of-pearl

Between the wars, Jacqueau and Louis Cartier set up Department "S" - "S" for Silver -  which expanded their large range of luxury items, including elaborate Desk Accessories and Cigarette and Vanity Cases. Department "S" was created to provide beautiful, but relatively affordable and functional objects. 

Trinket Treasure Box| Serafini Amelia| A diamond onyx and emerald panther by Cartier
Cartier, panther bracelet with green beryl

The Panther motif and imagery had long been popular in Europe and the black and white pattern was very popular, particularly in interior design. In 1914 Cartier introduced a Diamond and Onyx watch with a design by Charles Jacqueau, which was the first of their jewels to feature the Peau de Panthere style. In 1917, Cartier had the first fully representational Panther piece created atop a Black Onyx Vanity Case for Jeanne Toussaint,whom he affectionately called 'Panther'.

Perhaps the most well known and important of the Panther pieces ever produced was the articulate Bracelet with Diamonds and Calibre-Cut Black Onyx created for the Duchess of Windsor in 1952. This beautiful piece was auctioned by Sotheby's in 2010 for Seven Million Dollars, making it the most expensive Bracelet ever sold at auction.

Jeanne Toussaint. (1887-1978) Art Director and designer Cartier Photograph by Cecil Beaton
Jeanne Toussaint created this exotic flamingo brooch, decorated with rubies, sapphires, emeralds, citrines, and diamonds which was bought by The Duchess of Windsor, in 1940.

Jeanne Toussaint (1887-1978) started with the Cartier firm as a Creative Director for Department "S", moving up to the position of overseeing Cartier's Haute Joaillerie department, where she stayed for several decades as a highly influential creative force. Jeanne Toussaint is credited with several key design motifs by Cartier, including the development of the now iconic range of Panther jewels. Further exploration and development of the Panther motive was brought forth by the partnership between Toussaint and Peter Lemarchand, a graduate of L'E Cole Boulle, who joined Cartier in 1927. Another noteworthy example of Toussaint's relationship with the Windsors is the famous Flamingo Clip Brooch, crafted from stones from the Windsors own collection and famously delivered to them just days before Germany's 1949 invasion of Paris.


CARTIER - The Jeweller of Kings - Part Four

*Clocks and Watches*

During the early years, Cartier didn't manufacture their own timepieces, demands from their clients were met by buying important pieces at auction and purchasing selections from Specialist Dealers. In 1890 beautiful pieces were supplied to Cartier by the great watch-making firm of Vacheron & Constantin of Geneva.
Louis Cartier was busy planning and expanding Cartier's offerings after the move to the Rue de la Paix and this included focusing on Table Clocks, greater in-house production and further development of the Wristwatch. but, in the meantime, many famous firms were involved in the production of Cartier's Table Clocks, including movements supplied by the firms of Bredillard and Prevost and enameled cases by workshops such as Dubret.

Cartier, Paris. A "Model A" Art Deco Mystery Clock Made in 1949. Solid Rock Quartz, Gold, Platinum, Dia-monds and Ruby. White Jade Base
Cartier of Paris Mystery Clock, AKA The Egyptian Temple Panther Portico, made from Onyx, Rock Crystal, Coral, White and Yellow Gold, Sapphire, Emerald and Jade. 1920's

The most spectacular of the Cartier Table Clocks are the unique and innovative "Mystery Clock" which made their debut in 1913. The hands of this remarkable timepiece seem to operate by themselves, keeping time around a transparent face, made of Rock Crystal with no visible connection to a movement. 
Clock makers in fact, fixed each hand onto a separate crystal disc, set with a saw-toothed metal rim that is driven by gears disguised within the frame of the case. Each part of this amazing clock is hand-made and production of a completed clock was a laborious process requiring three to twelve months to complete .
The first "Mystery Clock" created was called the 'Model A'. This clock was created with a vertical frame and a heavy stone base and was sold to J.P.Morgan. 
Many more themes were designed and created into "Mystery Clocks", including the famous Portico models, which were designed as freestanding Portico's, featuring Dragons and Buddhas.
Art Deco -Clock in the Chinese taste, 1928. Maurice Couet and Charles Jacqueau for Cartier

The talent behind these iconic timepieces was a young watchmaker, Maurice Couet (1885 - 1963). Maurice first learned the watchmaking craft working in his father's workshop in Evreux and later with the famous Paris Studio of Prevost, eventually he was able to set up his own workshop, by 1911 Maurice and his workshop were supplying table clocks exclusively to Cartier.

In 1919, Maurice Couet set up the first Cartier Clock Workshop at the Rue Lafayette, with a host of highly skilled specialists including Lapidarists, Watchmakers, Enamellers and Stone Cutters. The workshop had its own team of designers, but many of the more important pieces, including Mystery Clocks were designed by the Cartier jewelers Charles Jacqueau and Georges Remy.
Cartier Baignoire 1920 Diamond 18k White Gold Lady's Watch, extremely rare, distributed in Cartier boutiques only. 18k white gold case number 734477 and reference number HPI00151. Its dial and bezel is covered with factory-set diamonds, Caiman leather strap with 18k white gold adjustable deployment diamond-baguette-set clasp, with scratch resistant sapphire crystal and quartz movement. Water resistant at 30 meters (100 feet).

In the early 1900's when fashion allowed for shorter sleeves and evening wear, wristwatches became appreciated as a fashionable jewelry item. Cartier first started creating small, jeweled wristwatch creations in the late 1880's, usually with round, rectangular or octagonal bezels, pave-set with Diamonds mounted on Bracelets of fine black cord or seed pearls. During the 1900's the beautiful Tonneaus and oval Baignoires wristwatch models gained quick popularity.

Cartier wrist watch. The design, known as Santos de Cartier, was made specially for Brazilian aviator Alberto Santos-Dumont.

Cartier - Back wind Manual Tank Wrist Watch. 18 Karat Yellow Gold with Leather Strap. France. Circa 1932.

While women were still loving and wearing their wristwatches, men preferred the pocket watch up through the first decade of the 1900's. That was to change with the debut of two now iconic wristwatches: The Santos and the Tank.

Cartier created the famous Santos wristwatch in 1904 for the famed aviator Alberto Santos Dumont, a close friend of Louis Cartier. The story goes that Alberto had difficulty in using in a pocket watch to gauge his performance time while in flight. The strapping on of a wristwatch seemed and proved practical and the Santos Dumont wristwatch officially went on sale to the public.

The Cartier Tank watch, whose clean lines are reputed to have been inspired by the silhouettes of American Tanks in Europe during WWI. The Cartier Tank watch was designed in 1917 and went on sale two years later.  

A LADY'S ART DECO DIAMOND WRISTWATCH, BY CARTIER The rectangular cream dial with Roman numerals and blued steel hands to the diamond-set surround and articulated shoulders, later black silk strap, watch circa 1925, with French assay marks for platinum Dial signed Cartier, reverse Nos. 23356 & 29686, with maker's mark EJ for Edmond Jaeger

Cartier's small watch department came under the supervision of another great talent, Edmond Jaeger (1850-1922). Jaeger learned his talents and trade working in several well respected companies. The most formative being the Breguet workshops in Paris.
By 1905 Jager had his own workshop and in 1907 signed a fifteen year contract with Cartier, giving them exclusive rights to his products. The European Watch and Clock Company was founded in 1919 as a joint venture between Cartier and Jaeger and supplied nearly all of the watch movements for Cartier Paris.

Cartier also worked with such well known Watch and Clock firms as Vacheron Constantin, Patek Phillipe and Audemars Piguet.


Louis and Jacques both died in 1942 and Pierre went on to become President of Cartier International retired in 1945. Cartier continued to be run by their descendants: Jean-Jacques Cartier in London and Claude Cartier in New York. In 1972, a group of investors headed by Joseph Kanoul acquired control of Cartier Paris and appointed Robert Hocq as President, shortly afterwards they acquired the London branch as well.
When Cartier New York was sold in 1976, the purchasing investors appointed Joseph Kanoui as Chairman and by 1979, the three separate branches were united as "Cartier World". 
The worlds leading luxury group,'Compagnie Financiere Richemont SA' currently owns Cartier, with numerous branches worldwide.
The firm continues to be known for its fine jewelry, many pieces referencing their noted design achievements from the turn of the 20th century, such as the Panthere design, Santos and Tank watches and the Trinity Tri-Colored Gold combination. 

Louis Francois Cartier- Jewelry designer founded the company in Paris, France in 1847 when he took over the workshop of his master designing. It remained under family control until 1964. In 1874 though, it was Louis Francois's son Alfred Cartier, that took over the company but it was Alfred's sons Louis, Pierre and Jacques who were responsible for establishing the brand worldwide. As of 2012 Cartier is owned by the granddaughter of Pierre, Elle Pagels and the Rupert family.

*Royal Warrants* 
King Edward VII, England
King Alfonso XIII, Spain
King Carlos I, Portugal
King Paramindr Maha Chulalongkorn of Siam
King George I, Greece
Duke Philippe D' Orleans
King Edward VIII
Prince Louis II, Monoco 


Tiffany & Company...The Man and his Empire

In 1837 the renowned American Jewelers Tiffany & Co., opened its doors in New York City as Tiffany & Young, this small business sold mostly Fancy Goods and Stationary.

Charles Lewis Tiffany

Carrying only a small amount of Costume Jewelry, owners Charles Lewis Tiffany and John P. Young soon expanded their business to Fine Jewelry imported from Europe.

In a fantastic turn of good luck in 1848, Young turned up in Paris on a buying trip while France's Second Revolution raged on. France's Nobles loyal to King Louis - Phillipe and desperate to flee Paris sold their Diamonds to Young at heavily discounted rates and in huge quantities.
From that time on, Diamonds were a huge part of Tiffany's stock.
Charles Tiffany became known as the King of Diamonds.

1856 Retailed by Tiffany & Co., The necklace, given by Samuel Colt to his bride (Elizabeth Hart Jarvis) as a wedding present, consists of graduating floriform blue enamel links set with twenty mine-cut diamonds interspersed with smaller diamonds. Total carat weight: 38.84.

In 1850, Tiffany opened an office in Paris at 79 Rue de Richelieu. Opening this Paris branch allowed the firm to keep abreast of the newest trends from Europe.
In 1853, Charles Lewis Tiffany bought out his partners and gained sole control of the firm and changed it's name to the more familiar Tiffany & Co. and in 1870 opened it's famous Union Square location in New York.

In 1856, pieces of a Hartford, Connecticut Historic Oak Tree, felled in a storm, were used by Tiffany to make Patriotic carvings for jewelry. Tiffany also purchased the last twenty miles of the Transatlantic Cable and created souvenir jewelry.

In 1862, during the Civil War, Tiffany provided swords, uniform laces, epaulettes, oraments and medals and badges, caps, rifles and shoes. The profits enabled Tiffany & Co. to return to making jewelry and silverware after the war as a major company.
Gem Hunter George Frederick Kunz

The Tiffany Diamond - One of the largest yellow diamonds. Discovered in the Kimberley mine South Africa in 1878. Originally weighing 287carats Charles Tiffany's 23 year old gemologist George Frederick Kunz studied the gem for a year before beginning to cut it reducing it to it's current size of 57 carats. The diamond has been worn only twice. Once by Mrs Sheldon Whitehouse at the1957 Tiffany Ball in Rhode Island and subsequently by Audrey Hepburn in 1961 for the film Breakfast at Tiffany's.

The famous Gem Hunter George Frederick Kunz, secured a steady supply of beautiful gems for the firms jewelry; which includes Montana Sapphires, Mexican Turquoise and Fire Opals, Tourmalines from New England and Demantoid Garnets from Russia.

In 1886, Tiffany and company develops the Sis Prong Setting to hold a diamond - Known ever after as the "Tiffany Setting".

Paulding Farnham was Tiffany & Co.'s preminent 19th c. jewelry designer. In 1885, at the age of 26, Farnham joined Tiffany’s design dept. Studying under Tiffany's chief jewelry designer, Edward Moore, Farnham quickly distinguished himself as a skillful & innovative artist. He was given the responsibility, along with Moore, of designing the jewelry for Paris’s int'l exposition in 1889 and was recognized as the genius behind Tiffany's success there when the firm won an unprecedented 6 gold medals.

Edward Moore and Paulding Farnham, Tiffany's top designing wizards used Historical sources for their design inspiration, as well as exotic cultures and nature.
Moore and Pauldings innovative work has won them acclaim at numerous International Expositions, such as the expositions of Paris 1878, 1884, 1898 and 1900; and Chicago 1893. The firm was bestowed with the honor of a Grand Prize for Jewelry at the 1900 Paris Exposition, the first one for an American firm.

Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848 - 1933) c. 1908. He was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass. He is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau and Aesthetic movements. Tiffany was affiliated with a prestigious collaborative of designers known as the Associated Artists. Tiffany designed stained glass windows and lamps, glass mosaics, blown glass, ceramics, jewelry, enamels and metalwork.
Queen Anne's Lace Hair Ornament. back detail. Silver, copper, opals, demantoid garnets, garnets, and enamel. Louis Comfort Tiffany.

Louis Comfort Tiffany, Charles's heir, further enhanced the firms reputation for innovative design and helped usher in the Art Nouveau era in decorative arts and jewelry.
His pieces were often inspired by nature; Dragonflies and Queen Anne's Lace were among his favorite subjects.
After his father died in 1902, Louis Comfort Tiffany assumed control of the firm and became Tiffany's first Director of Design.
He led the firm though the Art Deco era and into the Retro Age. In 1933, Louis Comfort Tiffany died.

Jean Schlumberger – A brooch gold 750, old-cut brilliants, total weight ca. 0,25 ct, 1 coral, workmanship ca. 1950/60, 22,4 g JEAN SCHLUMBERGER started his career in the 1930s as a designer of buttons and bijou-ware at the studio of legendary fashion designer Elsa Schiaparelli. In 1956, having already opened his first boutique in New York, he was invited by the president of Tiffany & Co, Walter Hoving, to design jewellery for Tiffany & Co.

It was not until 1955 that a new Director of Design was found. In 1955, newly minted Company President Walter Hoving hired Van Day Truex for the position.
It was Truex's idea to invite Jean Schlumberger, a fashion designer for Elsa Schiaparelli, to create individualized pieces for Tiffany.
His signature pieces featured animal motifs, embellished with bold enamel and large, bright gemstones.
When Schlumberger departed, the firm continued to feature individual designers.
 In the last half of the twentieth century, designers like Donald Clafin (1965-1977), Angela Cummings (late 60's-Early 80's), Elsa Peretti (1974-Present), Paloma Picasso (1980-Present) and now frank Gerhy (2005-Present) have kept Tiffany's tmage and inventory fresh.
GEM-SET BROOCH, LOUIS COMFORT TIFFANY FOR TIFFANY & CO, CIRCA 1900 Set with three peridots, within a fine frame of twisted gold rope work, decorated with light green and pink plique-à-jour enamel, further set with seed pearls and mixed-cut rubies, mounted in gold, signed Tiffany & Co.
3in. (7.6cm.) long the flask stamped TIFFANY & CO. with French 18K gold poinçons, the A TORTOISE-SHELL AND ENAMELED 18 KARAT GOLD PERFUME FLASK** Tiffany & Co., circa 1905 with inside of the box marked TIFFANY & CO. 36 bis AVENUE DE L'OPERA PARIS
Black Opal, Opaline and Enamel Pendant, Tiffany & Co., c. 1905,the black opal among opaline grapes, vines and enamel leaves, 18kt gold and platinum mount, signed.
Tiffany & Company...The Man and his Empire
Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) - Vase. Crackle Patterned Favrile Glass. Circa 1892-1902. 6-1/2" x 5-1/2".


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